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Across the Grain - at right angles to the grain direction of the paper - also known as Against the Grain
Authors Alteration - change in copy or specifications after production has begun - also known as AA's


Bleed -printing that extends to the edge of the sheet or page after trimming
Blueline - prepress photographic proof where all images show as blue image on white paper
Butt - to join without overlapping or space between
Butt Fit - ink colors overlapped only a hairline so they appear perfectly butted


C1S - paper coated on one side
C2S - paper coated on both sides
Camera Ready Copy - mechanicals, photographs, and art fully prepared to be photographed for platemaking
Chipboard - inexpensive, single-ply cardboard, usually brown or gray
Clip Art - high contrast drawing printed on white, glossy paper and made to be cut and pasted to a mechanical
Coarse Screen - screen with ruling of less than 133 lines per inch
Coated Paper - paper with a coating of clay that improves ink holdout
Collate - to assemble sheets into proper sequence
Color Bar - strip of colors printed near the edge of a press sheet to help evaluate ink density
Color Break - in multicolor printing, the point or line at which one ink color stops and another begins
Color Separation - set of four halftone negatives for making plates for 4 color process printing
Composite Film - graphic arts negative made by combining two or more images
Composite Proof - proof of color separations in position with graphics and type
Crash Printing - letterpress printing on carbon or carbonless forms so image prints simultaneously on all sheets in the set
Crop - to eliminate portions of an illustration or photograph so the remainder is more clear or able to fit the layout
Crop Marks - lines near the edge of an image showing portions to be eliminated
Cut Stock - paper distributor term for paper 11 x 17 or smaller
CWT - paper distributor term for 100 pounds
Cyan - one of the four process colors: also known as process blue


Deckle Edge - feathered edge on specifically made sheets of text and cover paper
Densitometer - instrument used to measure light reflecting from or transmitted through copy
Die - sharp metal rule used for die cutting or block of metal used for embossing or foil stamping
Die Cutting - cutting irregular shapes in paper using metal rules mounted on a letter press
Dot Gain or Spread - phenomenon of dots printing larger on paper than they are on negatives or plates
Double Bump - to print a single image twice so it has two layers of ink. Also referred to as a double hit
Double Burn - to expose a plate or proof to two negatives to create a composite image
Drill - to bore holes in paper so sheets fit over posts of loose leaf binders
Drop Out - to eliminate halftone dots or fine lines due to overexposure during camera work or platemaking. The lost copy is said to have dropped out
Dry Gum Paper - label paper with glue tha can be activated by water
Dull Finish - characteristic of paper that reflects relatively little light
Duotone - photograph reproduced from two halftone negatives and usually printed in two ink colors
Duplex Paper - paper with a different color or finish on each side


Emboss - to press an image into paper so it lies above the surface
Emulsion - coating of chemicals on papers, film and printing plates that, prior to development, is sensitive to light
Enamel Paper - alternative name for coated paper


Film Coat - paper with a very thin coating
Film Laminate - thin sheet of plastic adhered to printed paper for protection
Fine Screen - screen with ruling of more than 150 lines per inch
Finish - surface characteristic of paper
Finishing - exclusive term used for all bindery operations
Flat - in photography, characteristic of an image that lacks contrast. In printing, an assembly of negatives taped to masking material and ready for platemaking
Flexography - method of printing on a web press with rubber plates and raised images
Flood - to cover a sheet with ink or varnish
Flush Cover - cover that is trimmed to the same size as inside pages
Foil Emboss - to foil stamp and emboss an image
Format - size, shape, and overall layout of printed piece
Fountain - reservoir for ink or water on the press
Fountain Solution - mixture of water and chemicals that dampens a printing plate to prevent ink from adhering to its non-image area
Four Color Process - technique of printing that uses four process colors of ink to simulate color photographs or illustrations


Gang - to reproduce two or more printed pieces or multiple copies of the same piece simultaneously on one sheet of paper. Also, to halftone or separate more than one image in only one exposure
Generation - a first generation image is the original; second generation is made from the original; third generation is made from the second generation
Ghosting - phenomenon of a faint image on a printed sheet where it was not intended to appear
Grade - one of seven major categories of paper: bond, uncoated book, coated book, text, cover, board and specialty
Grain - in paper, the direction in which fibers are aligned. In photography, crystals that make up emulsion on film
Grain Long or Grain Short - paper whose fibers parallel the long or short dimension of the sheet
Gravure - method of printing using etched metal cylinders, usually on web presses
Gripper Edge - edge of a sheet held by the grippers, thus going first through a sheetfed press


Halftone - to photgraph continuous-tones through a screen to convert the image into dots. The result is also called a halftone and may be either positive or negative and on film or paper
Halftone Screen - piece of film containing a grid of lines that break light into dots as it passes through
Hickey - donut shaped spot or imperfection in printing, most visible in area of heavy ink coverage High Bulk Paper - paper made relatively thick in proportion to its basis weight


Image Area - portion of a negative or plate corresponding to inking on paper; portion of paper on which ink appears
Imposition - arrangement of pages on mechanicals of flats so they will appear in proper sequence after press sheets are folded and bound
Impression - one pressing of paper against type, plate, blanket, or die to transfer image Imprint - to print additional copy on a previously printed sheet
Indicia - postal permit information printed on objects to be mailed and accepted by the USPS in lieu of stamps
Ink Jet - method of printing by spraying droplets of ink thorugh computer controlled nozzles


Jog - to straighten or align sheets of paper in a stack


Kiss Cut - to die cut the top layer, but not the backing layer of self adhesive paper
Knockout - alternative term for Mask Out
Knockout Film - alternative term for Masking Material such as Rubylith


Laid Finish - grid of parallel lines on paper simulating surface of handmade paper
Laminate - to bond plastic film to paper or to glue paper to chipboard or corrugated cardboard
Layout - sketch or drawing of a design for a proposed printed piece showing position, size, and color of copy
Leading Edge - edge of a sheet of paper that enters the press first, also known as gripper edge
Letterpress - method of printing from raised surfaces
Lettershop - alternative term for Mailing Service
Line Copy - Type, rules, clip art and other images that are high contrast
Lines Per Inch - the number of lines or rows of dots there are per inch and in a screen tint, halftone, or separation
Lithography - method of printing using a chemically coated plate whose image areas attract ink and whose non imaged areas repel ink
Loupe - alternative term for Graphic Arts Magnifier


M - Roman numeral for 1000
Magenta - one of the four process colors: also known as process red
Mailing Service - business specializing in addressing and mailing large quantities of printed pieces
Makeready - all activities required to set up a press before production begins. Also refers to paper used in this process
Matte Finish - slightly dull finish on coated, lightly calendered paper
Medium Screen - screen with ruling of 133 or 150 lines per inch
Metallic Ink - ink containing powdered metal that sparkles in light
Micrometer - instrument used to measure thickness of paper
Mike - to measure the thickness of paper using a micrometer
Moire - undesirable pattern in halftones and screen tints made with improperly aligned screens
Mottle - spotty, uneven ink coverage especially noticeable in large solids


Negative - characteristic of an image on film or paper which blacks in the original subject are white or clear and whites in the original are black or opaque. Also, piece of film on which negative image appears


Offset - alternative term often used for Setoff
Offset Paper - alternative term often used for Uncoated Book Paper
Overprint - to print over a previously printed image
Overrun - the number of pieces that were printed in excess of the quantity specified
Overs - printed pieces in an overrun


Pad - to bind by applying glue along one edge of a stack of sheets
Pagination - assembly of type with other line copy into page format. When done by hand, this is makeup or pasteup; when done by electronically, it is computer aided pagination (CAP)
Parent Sheet - paper distributor term for sheets 17 x 22 or larger
Perfecting Press - press capable of printing both sides of the paper during a single pass
Picking - undesirable phenomenon of bits of fiber or coating coming loose from paper during printing
PMS - abbreviation for Pantone Matching System, a check standard trademark for color reproduction and color reproduction materials owned by Pantone
PMT - abbreviation for photomechanical transfer, a Kodak trade name for a process used to make positive paper prints of line copy and halftones
Prep - short for Preparation
Preparation - camera work, stripping, platemaking, and other activities by a printer before presswork begins
Prepress - alternative term for Preparation
Preprint - to print work in advance to be ready for imprinting or inserting
Press Check - event at which test sheets are examined before production run is authorized to begin
Press Proof - proof made on press using the plates, paper, and ink specified for the job
Price Break - quantity level at which unit cost of paper or printing drops
Printing Plate - surface carrying image to be printed
Process Colors - the colors needed for 4 color process printing; yellow, magenta, cyan and black
Progressive Proof - press proof showing each color of a job separately or several colors in combination
Proof - test sheet made to reveal errors or flaws, predict results, and record how a printing job is intended to appear
Proof OK - customer signature approving a proof and authorizing the job to advance to the next stage


Quotation - printers offer to print a job for a specific price calculated from specifications and dummies provided by customer


Raised Printing - alternative term for Thermagraphy
Ream - 500 sheets of paper
Register - to position printing in proper relation to edges of paper and other printing on the same sheet. Such printing is said to be in register.
Reverse - type or other image reproduced by printing the background rather than the image itself, allowing the underlying color of paper or previously printed ink to show in the shape of the image
Running Head or Foot - title or other information at the top or bottom of every page of a publication


Saddlestitch - to bind by stapling sheets together where they fold at the spine
Score - to compress paper along a line so it will fold more easily
Screen Tint - area of image printed with dots so ink coverage is less than 100% and simulates shading or a lighter color
Scum - undesirable thin film of ink covering non-image area of printed sheet
Self-Cover - publication made entirely from the same paper so that cover is printed simultaneously with inside pages
Self-Mailer - printed piece designed to be mailed without an envelope
Setoff - Undesirable transfer of wet ink from the top of one sheet to the underside of another as they lie in the delivery stack of a press. Sometimes called Offsetting
Sheetfed Press - press that prints sheets of paper
Show Through - printing on one side of the paper that can be seen from the other side
Shrink Wrap - method of tightly wrapping packages or products in plastic film
Signature - sheet of printed pages which, when folded, become part of a publication
Sizing - chemicals mixed with pulp that make paper less able to absorb moisture
Slip Sheet - blank sheet placed between newly-made printed products to prevent setoff or scuffing during handling and shipping
Solid - any area of the sheet that has received 100% ink coverage
Specifications - complete and precise descriptions of paper, ink, binding, quantity and other features of a printing job
Spec Sheet - short for sheet on which specifications are written
Spoilage - paper wasted during make ready, printing or bindery operations
Spot Varnish - varnish applied to portions of a sheet
Stat - general term for inexpensive photographic print of line copy or halftone
Stationery - letterhead, business cards, envelopes, and other printed materials for business correspondence
Stripping - assembling negatives in flats in preparation for making printing plates


Tack - characteristic of ink making it sticky
Thermography - method of printing using colorless resin powder and heat applied to wet ink yielding raised images
Tip In Or On - to glue one edge of a sheet to another sheet or signature
Trapping - the process of creating an overlap between two or more printed colors, in order to compensate for slight variances in press registration that might otherwise result in a gap of unprinted paper where colors were intended to butt
Trim Size - size of printed product after last trim is made


Up - printing two up or three up means printing the identical piece twice or three times on one sheet of paper in one impression


Varnish - clear liquid applied like ink on press for beauty and protection
Vellum Finish - relatively rough finish on uncoated paper
Vignette - halftone whose background gradually fades into white


Wash Up - to clean ink from rollers, fountains, and other components of a press
Waste - alternative term for Spoilage
With the Grain - parallel to the grain direction of the paper
Working Film - negatives still loose or not composited
Wove Finish - relatively smooth finish on paper achieved by moderate calendaring

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